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Leys a que se refere a da policia.   (Laws dated 12 March 1603, 30 December 1605, 25 December 1608, 25 March 1742, 4 November 1755 [2]; 6 December 1660, 9 January 1604.)   Followed by:-  (Law dated 25 June 1760).   Followed by:- (Law dated 4 November 1805.)  Followed by:- (Law dated 28 May 1810.)  Followed by:- (Law dated 10 December 1801.)


(Lisbon, 1755-1810)


Folio.  20 pp.;  11 pp.;   (5) ff.;  7 pp.;  13 pp.  Recent imitation leather.  

A collection of laws relating to police in Portugal.   Spain’s occupation of Portugal in 1588 resulted in an upsurge of new legislation;  to maintain order bands of twenty watchmen were to be formed, and judges, magistrates, bailiffs and scribes appointed.   After the earthquake of 1755 lawlessness worsened;  Pombal swiftly introduced severe laws to punish miscreants, and looters faced immediate execution.   All vagrants and beggars considered physically fit were to be compelled to work in the city’s reconstruction.   In 1760 he created an Intendancy of Police to enforce the application of the law and maintain order (Veríssimo Serrão, História de Portugal, VI, p. 93-94), and the Office of General Intendent of the Court and Kingdom Police was established, together with a complete reform of the police system.   “This reform gave Portugal an efficient and modern police organization to cope effectively with rising crime and banditry, but also instituted an aggressive state police with powers to arrest anyone who dared to oppose or was thought suspect by the government.   A fundamental element of the new idea of the eighteenth century state, the police powers continued to grow;  . . . in 1801 a Royal Guard of Police was instituted.   Intendent Pina Manique, who headed the Police for more than twenty years (1780-1803) became famous for his persecution of liberals and partisans of French and American political ideologies” (Oliveira Marques, History of Portugal, I, p. 395)

Marquês de Pombal.  Catálogo Bibliográfico e iconográfico,  pp. 346 (Nos. 102 & 103) & 366 (No. 299).



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